The Universe around Earth

The Big Bang and Radiation

If we were to look at the Universe one second after the Big Bang, what we would see is a 10-billion degree sea of neutrons, protons, electrons, anti-electrons (positrons), photons, and neutrinos as a hot and infinitely point. (A Spacetime Odyssey Earth, National Geographic, 2014). Then, as time went on, the Universal continued to cool, it would eventually reach the temperature where electrons combined with nuclei to form neutral atoms. Heat within the stars caused the conversion of helium and hydrogen into almost all the remaining elements in the universe. (Origins of the Universe 101, National Geographic, 2018). What happened next were two major stages of Universal’s evolution called the Radiation and Matter Era.

Space radiation is different from the kinds of radiation we experience here on Earth. It is comprised of atoms in which electrons have been stripped away as the atom accelerated in interstellar space to speeds approaching the speed of light – eventually, only the nucleus of the atom remains. The Earth’s biggest source of radiation is the Sun. The majority is in the form of visible, infrared, and ultraviolet radiation (UV) which occurs on the surface of the Sun and releases massive amounts of energy out into space in the form of x-rays, gamma rays, and streams of protons and electrons. This is called a solar particle event (SPE). (NASA, 2019) Life on Earth is protected from the full impact of solar and cosmic radiation by the magnetic fields that surround the Earth and by the Earth’s atmosphere. The Earth also has radiation belts caused by its magnetic field. It also shields us from the full effects of the radiation spectrum and its damaging effects. Furthermore, Earth’s atmosphere contains Ozone called Ozone layers protected us from the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation from Solar.

In the context of increasing concerns about the health of the planet, the study of Cosmos and Earth set out to explore approaches that aim to empower people to preserve the life support systems that sustain not just humans but all living things.

The atmosphere around Earth

The ozone layer, also called ozonosphere, a region of the upper atmosphere, between roughly 15 and 35 km (9 and 22 miles) above Earth’s surface, containing relatively high concentrations of ozone molecules (O3). Approximately 90% of the atmosphere’s ozone occurs in the stratosphere which rises the temperature as increasing height, a phenomenon created by the absorption of solar radiation by the ozone layer which is a bio-protective filter.

As explained earlier, the Sun is a source of the full spectrum of ultraviolet radiation, which is commonly subdivided into UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C. These are the classifications most often used in Earth sciences. UV-C rays are the most harmful and are almost completely absorbed by our atmosphere. About 95 percent of UV-B rays are absorbed by ozone in the Earth’s atmosphere but the remaining still impacts significantly on organisms. Not only UV-B rays are the harmful rays that cause sunburn, but exposure to UV-B rays increases the risk of DNA and other cellular damage in living organisms such as structural proteins changed their expression in response to UV. Nevertheless, a strong effect of UV radiation has been also evidenced. It is also known that the increase of UV radiation may be capable of activating viruses and reduce immunological response. (Sesto, A., et, 2002)

In 1974, Rowland and Molina observed that the ozone is rapidly decreasing due to the compounds formed by chlorine, fluorine, and carbons called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) being used in refrigeration, air conditioning, and plastic foam manufacturing. This decrement in the ozone layer was further responsible for the increased ultraviolet (UV) radiation level on the Earth's surface and posing a serious threat to human health, animals, and aquatic ecosystems.

Further, it was recognized that not only chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) but there were some other chemical compounds emitted by industries and human activities were also responsible for the depletion of the ozone layer. One of the main chemical compounds is carbon tetrachloride are the substances commonly categorized as the ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) (Kellmann et al., 2012)

The Evidence

The ozone-layer depletion is the result of emissions to the atmosphere of chemical substances containing chlorine and bromine. It occurs when the natural balance between the production and the destruction of the stratospheric ozone is tipped in favor of the destruction.
The report of William T. Ball, et al, in 2018 published by the European Geosciences Union points out the greenhouse gases (GHGs) will greatly modify the future distribution of ozone in the stratosphere (WMO 2014, chapter 2.4.2). More specifically, GHGs induce stratospheric cooling, but also strengthen the BDC (the Brewer-Dobson circulation - a model of atmospheric circulation). The cooling and BDC strengthening have opposite influences on the ozone layer in the tropics: radiative cooling slows down ozone catalytic cycles and affects gas-phase ozone photochemistry (thus increasing ozone concentrations), while the strengthening of the BDC enhances advection of ozone-poor air in the tropical lower stratosphere, thus decreasing ozone concentrations (Shepherd 2014).

Since the Montreal Protocol in 1998, although emissions of halogen-containing ozone-depleting substances (hODSs) were banned, ozone in the lower stratosphere between 60◦ S and 60◦ N has indeed continued to decline. A consistent ozone decrease below 32 hPa and 24 km at all latitudes. These results strongly indicate that ozone has declined in the lower stratosphere since 1998. The evidence from multiple satellite measurements was reported in stratospheric ozone (between 147 and 1 hPa (13–48 km) at mid-latitudes, or 100 and 1 hPa (17– 48 km) at tropical latitudes) integrated over latitudes 60◦ S–60◦ N which is lower stratosphere in 1988. Moreover, lower stratospheric ozone defined to decrease together with a recovery in the upper stratosphere. Thus, a smaller percentage change over a reduced altitude range in the lower stratosphere can produce larger integrated changes than in the more extended regions higher up.

There are several possible explanations for the continuing decline in lower stratospheric ozone, beginning with those related to dynamics. Taking part in the tropical and subtropical (< 30◦ ) lower stratospheric decline may be linked to a greenhouse-gas-related BDC acceleration n (Randel and Wu, 2007; Oman et al., 2010; WMO, 2014). As the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions include CO2, methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) that both occur naturally and also are released by human activities. In terms of natural source of GHG, the huge amounts of CO are also produced from the earth’s mantle which is extremely difficult to measure and control accurately. On the other side, the assessment of diesel engines from human activities, the petrol engine emitted more CO into the atmosphere, as a result of inappropriately installed or unvented and poorly maintained heating.

Control of CO emissions

The control of CO emissions from automobile vehicles has become a global challenge in achieving improved urban air quality. After decades of study and experiments, SSE LICMA has successfully produced a useful solution for sustainable energy, this solution can be applied to all internal combustion engines without planning or using input materials using “principle of reversion”. In the process of synthesizing energy from the air, this technology utilizes the law of diffusion, cycles, and the available power of the engine without causing any negative impact on the existing internal combustion engine. The selected atoms from the beginning of cosmic origins, which has one electron, one proton, and oxygen, engages in the power generation process of internal combustion engines. After completing its power generation, this energy also helps to burn the traditional fossil fuel (gasoline or oil) completely, so it helps the burning time of the fuel is longer, higher power output and especially it also cleans the carbon in the engine to help stabilize the burning temperature, while eliminating toxic emissions from fossil fuel burning, helping to friendly the environment by eliminating emissions of CO, CO2…

This solution works based on the demand of the engine and assured that passed through world-class certifications. The solution is ready to apply in internal combustion engines in cars and continues research to apply to other devices shortly.

References

Ball, W., Alsing, J., Mortlock, D., Staehelin, J., Haigh, J., Peter, T., Tummon, F., Stübi, R., Stenke, A., Anderson, J., Bourassa, A., Davis, S., Degenstein, D., Frith, S., Froidevaux, L., Roth, C., Sofieva, V., Wang, R., Wild, J., Yu, P., Ziemke, J. and Rozanov, E., 2018. Evidence for a continuous decline in lower stratospheric ozone offsetting ozone layer recovery. /Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics/, 18(2), pp.1379-1394.

Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey: The Lost Worlds Of Planet Earth - Ep 9 Of 13 (NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC); Time: 19:30:00; Broadcast Date: 11 May 2014; Duration: 42 min., 41 sec.

F.S. Rowland, M.J. Molina, Stratospheric sink for chlorofluoromethane: Chlorine atom-catalyzed destruction of ozone, Nature, 249 (1974), pp. 810-812

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Science Mission Directorate. (2010). Ultraviolet Waves. Retrieved, from NASA Science website: http://science.nasa.gov/ems/10_ultravioletwaves

Oman, L. D., Plummer, D. A., Waugh, D. W., Austin, J., Scinocca, J. F., Douglass, A. R., Salawitch, R. J., Canty, T., Akiyoshi, H., Bekki, S., Braesicke, P., Butchart, N., Chipperfield, M. P., Cugnet, D., Dhomse, S., Eyring, V., Frith, S., Hardiman, S. C., Kinnison, D. E., Lamarque, J.-F., Mancini, E., Marchand, M., Michou, M., Morgenstern, O., Nakamura, T., Nielsen, J. E., Olivié, D., Pitari, G., Pyle, J., Rozanov, E., Shepherd, T. G., Shibata, K., Stolarski, R. S., TeyssèDre, H., Tian, W., Yamashita, Y., and Ziemke, J. R.: Multimodel assessment of the factors driving stratospheric ozone evolution over the 21st century, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 115, D24306, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JD014362, 2010.

Origins of the Universe 101 | National Geographic/. 2018. [video] National Geographic.

Randel, W. J. and Wu, F.: A stratospheric ozone profile data set for 1979-2005: Variability, trends, and comparisons with column ozone data, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 112, D06313, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JD007339, 2007.

S. Kellmann, T.V. Clarmann, G.P. Stiller, E. Eckert, N. Glatthor, M. Höpfner, M. Kiefer, J. Orphal, B. Funke, U. Grabowski, A. Linden, G.S. Dutton, J.W. Elkins, Global CFC-11 (CCl3F) and CFC-12 (CCl2F2) measurements with the Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding (MIPAS): retrieval, climatologies and trends, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12 (2012), pp. 11857-11875

Sesto, A., Navarro, M., Burslem, F., & Jorcano, J. L. (2002). Analysis of the ultraviolet B response in primary human keratinocytes using oligonucleotide microarrays. /Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America/, /99/(5), 2965–2970. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.052678999

Singh, A. and Bhargawa, A., 2019. Atmospheric burden of ozone depleting substances (ODSs) and forecasting ozone layer recovery. /Atmospheric Pollution Research/, 10(3), pp.802-807.

Shepherd, T. G., Plummer, D. A., Scinocca, J. F., Hegglin, M. I., Fioletov, V. E., Reader, M. C., Remsberg, E., von Clarmann, T., and Wang, H. J.: Reconciliation of halogen-induced ozone loss with the total-column ozone record, Nat. Geosci., 7, 443–449, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2155, 2014.

WMO: Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2014 Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project Report, World Meteorological Organization,Geneva, Switzerland, p. 416, 2014.