Global Energy: Condition and Trend

The utilizing of fossil energy turns into the image of current modern human advancement. Access to energy is a key pillar for human wellbeing, economic development, and poverty alleviation. Ensuring everyone has sufficient access is an ongoing and pressing challenge for global development. In any case, ozone-depleting substance outflows have expanded continually due to human movement and petroleum product burning, which could essentially impact the inside equalization procedure of worldwide regular biological systems. In the interim, the energy shortage problem is progressively genuine because of overexploitation and maltreatment of fossil energy. The environmental change and robustness issue profoundly compromise the practical presence and advancement of all mankind. It has become the basic angle of nations worldwide to address environmental change, decrease carbon dioxide emissions, and execute sustainable development.

Snapshot of global energy consumption

From an energy perspective, primary fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and uranium are natural resources. Moreover, flows in nature like wind, and hydro are also natural resources. Unlike flows, primary fuels are in deposits within the Earth that must be discovered and extracted. The relationship between energy consumption and economic growth has become a key and hot topic in environmental science, climatology, and other relative academic fields.

Worldwide, humans used about 575 quadrillions Btu of energy in 2015, according to estimates from the U.S. Energy Information Agency. The energy consumption is divided into different categories: residential, commercial, industrial, electric power, and transportation called the sectors of the economy. But all of these sections extensively count on two major resources which are non-renewable energy and renewable energy.

Primary Energy Consumption

According to the International Energy Agency (IEA) 2019, total industrial energy consumption and transport energy usage take the largest share of final energy consumption. Even though the chart has predicted there was a significant shift towards energy consumption to more efficient and sustainable fuel usage.

In terms of consumption across the world’s region, consumption has been increasing since the 1960s, most dramatically in the Asia Pacific where the total consumption increased more than 12-fold over this period. in 2015 the Asia Pacific was by far the largest regional consumer with 42 percent- this was about the same as North America, Europe, and Eurasia combined (at 43 percent). The Middle East, Latin America, and Africa account for around seven, five, and three percent, respectively. ( Statistical Review of World Energy 2019)

As the heat to Asia’s fast-growing economies, coal is the incumbent in most developing Asian countries: new investment decisions in coal-using infrastructure have slowed sharply, but the large stock of existing coal-using power plants and factories (and the 170 GW of capacity under construction worldwide). Demand for natural gas has been growing fast as a fuel for industry and (in China) for residential consumers, spurring a worldwide wave of investment in new LNG supply and pipeline connections.

Oil demand in 2018 rose steadily but confounded other expectations. The leading source of consumption growth was not China or India, but rather the United States. Sales of electric vehicles set new records, although they are yet to make a very visible dent in oil consumption. Oil demand for long-distance freight, shipping and aviation, and petrochemicals continues to grow. But its use in passenger cars peaks in the late 2020s due to fuel efficiency improvements and fuel switching, mainly to electricity. Lower battery costs are an important part of the story: electric cars in some major markets soon become cost-competitive, on a total-cost-of-ownership basis, with conventional cars.

BP statistical preview of Global Energy (2019)

Renewable Energy Consumption

Renewable power grew by 14.5%, slightly below its historical average, although its increase in energy terms (71 mtoe) was close to the record-breaking increase of 2017. In Statistical Review of World Energy 2019:

  • By country, China was again the largest contributor to renewables growth (32 mtoe) which counts for 45%, surpassing growth in the entire OECD (26 mtoe).
  • A solar generation grew by 30 mtoe, just below the increase in the wind (32 mtoe), and provided more than 40% of renewables growth.
  • Hydroelectric generation increased by an above-average 3.1%, with European generation rebounding by 9.8% (12.9 mtoe), almost offsetting its steep decline in the previous year.
  • The nuclear generation rose by 2.4%, its fastest growth since 2010. China (10 mtoe) contributed almost three-quarters of global growth, with Japan (5 mtoe) the second-largest increase.
  • Electricity generation rose by an above-average 3.7%, buoyed by China (which accounted for more than half of the growth), India, and the US.

Renewables accounted for a third of the net increase in power generation, followed closely by coal (31%) and then natural gas (25%). The share of renewables in power generation increased from 8.4% to 9.3%. Coal still accounted for the largest share of power generation at 38%.

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Projection

Global energy consumption by the residential and commercial sectors is expected to increase by more than 20% by 2040, while electricity will be the main energy provider in the building sector. About 90% of the growth will be met with electricity. Such an increase is significant but not as high as the corresponding growth of consumption by the transport and industrial sectors.

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The Institute of Energy Economics in Japan (2017) published a reference and an advanced technology scenario regarding future energy consumption by the residential and commercial sectors by 2050. It predicts an annual increase in energy consumption by the building sector of close to 1.8% per year. The advanced technological scenario predicts that by 2050, the reduction in energy consumption may exceed 25% compared to the reference scenario. This represents a serious reduction.

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The expected growth in residential and commercial energy consumption up to 2040 is given in Fig. 2.29. While the expected increase in consumption by the residential and commercial sectors between 2016 and 2040 will be close to 20%, the corresponding growth for non-OECD countries will exceed 40%. As forecast by ExxonMobil (2018), Africa and Asia will drive the expected increase in energy consumption, each accounting for 30% of the expected rise.

In the IEA 2019 projection scenario, nearly 8500 GW of new power capacity is added globally by 2040, of which two-thirds is renewables. Renewables account for the majority of capacity additions in most regions. This includes about 80% of additions in the European Union and China, but they provide less than half of additions in Southeast Asia and the Middle East. Solar PV provides the largest share of renewable capacity additions in most regions, including China and India.

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Energy consumption impacts

Over the past 40 years, there has arisen among informed leaders of the industry, governments, and the environmental movement an acute awareness of energy as an issue of critical importance to everyone’s well-being and survival. An energy crisis— or problem, or shortage, or dilemma, as it has been called— is created by the continually increasing demand for energy. This demand has resulted in three issues becoming critical concerns of the entire international community.
Asia accounted for 90% of all coal-fired capacity built worldwide over the past 20 years. China built by far the newest coal-fired plants in that period, about 880 GW, followed by India (173 GW) and Southeast Asia (63 GW).

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Not mentioned about limited reserves of natural minerals on Earth, to produce energy for electric and transport usage which are two major demand for consumption, the existing global coal-fired fleet is set to release CO2 emissions for many years to come. Continuing to operate the world’s existing fossil power fleet as it is would “lock-in” a vast amount of CO2 emissions. On the basis that plant operations and economics are in line with stated policies, CO2 emissions from the existing coal fleet would emit a cumulative 175 GtCO2 over the period to 2040 – equivalent to 5 times total energy sector emissions in 2018 – despite annual emissions steadily declining to about 60% of today’s levels.

Additionally, total GHG emissions grew 1.5% per year in the last decade (2009 to 2018) and reach a record high of 51.8 GtCO2e in 2018 without LUC emissions and 55.3 GtCO2e2 in 2018 with LUC. With theses growth of energy consumption globally, it is both the urgency and the challenge for the energy generation

Solution

The Paris Agreement’s goal is to keep the increase in global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and, in doing so, to pursue efforts to limit the increase to 1.5°C. This has been incorporated into the critical energy-related UN Sustainable Development Goals, which seek in addition to widen access to clean, affordable energy.

If we are to meet our global climate targets and avoid dangerous climate change, the world needs a significant and concerted transition in its energy sources. Despite renewable energy consumption is too small compared to the primary energy, leading to non-profit solutions for alternative energy. Specifically, renewables-based power investment declined slightly in 2018 around $390 billion yet a dollar of renewables spending continued to buy more generation capacity than in the past.

The resources that the Energy sector is usually concerned about our natural resources and many deposits of these natural resources have been discovered, but many deposits have yet to be discovered.

A lot of effort has been made over the years to shift towards renewable energies, one of the new developing methods is to leverage the cosmic energy. The science of physics concentrates on the interactions between matter and energy. Over the world, organizations have researched various ways to take advantage of the cosmic energy. By principles of physics, physical chemistry, quantum mechanics, and the laws of the combustion engine and the cosmic principle, a new solution expects to synthesize the energy from the universe with the hope of a better planet and take a closer step to the next civilization ’s level of technological advancement.

References

Bundhoo, Z., 2018. Renewable energy exploitation in the small island developing state of Mauritius: Current practice and future potential. /Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews/, 82, pp.2029-2038.

/Energy Exploration & Exploitation/, 2019. BP Statistical Review of World Energy.

Fei, L., Dong, S., Xue, L., Liang, Q. and Yang, W., 2011. Energy consumption-economic growth relationship and carbon dioxide emissions in China. /Energy Policy/, 39(2), pp.568-574.

Hannah Ritchie (2014) - “Energy”. /Published online at OurWorldInData.org./ Retrieved from: ‘ https://ourworldindata.org/energy’ [Online Resource]

IEA, Change in final energy consumption by sector, 2000-2018, and by scenario to 2040, IEA, Paris https://www.iea.org/data-and-statistics/charts/change-in-final-energy-consumption-by-sector-2000-2018-and-by-scenario-to-2040

IEA, Global energy-related CO2 emissions by sector, IEA, Paris https://www.iea.org/data-and-statistics/charts/global-energy-related-co2-emissions-by-sector

Liu, W. and Ramirez, A., 2017. State of the art review of the environmental assessment and risks of underground geo-energy resources exploitation. /Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews/, 76, pp.628-644

Santamouris, M 2018, Minimizing Energy Consumption, Energy Poverty and Global and Local Climate Change in the Built Environment: Innovating to Zero, Elsevier, Saint Louis. Available from: ProQuest Ebook Central. [19 July 2020].

Skipka, Kenneth J., and Louis Theodore. /Energy Resources : Availability, Management, and Environmental Impacts/, Taylor & Francis Group, 2014. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/rmit/detail.action?docID=1562769.

Zhao, H. (2019). Climate Change and Sustainable Development. In The economics and politics of China's energy security transition / (pp. 277–305). Academic Press, an imprint of Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-815152-5.00012-9